Dang, A. T. and Kuhl, T. L. Mind the Line Tension: New Criteria for Nanodomains in Biological Membranes. Biophysical Journal, 2017. 112(7): p.1291-1292.

Kurniawan, J., Suga, K., and Kuhl, T. L. Interaction forces and membrane charge tunability: Oleic acid containing membranes in different pH conditions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 2017. 1859(2): p.211-217.

Kurniawan, J., eg al., Interaction Forces between Lipid Rafts. Langmuir, 2017. 33(1): p. 382-387.


Kurniawan, J. and Kuhl, T. L. Characterization of Solid-Supported Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Membranes Containing Cholesterol. Langmuir, 2015. 31(8): p. 2527-2532.


Kienle, D.F. and T.L. Kuhl, Analyzing Refractive Index Profiles of Confined Fluids by Interferometry. Analytical Chemistry, 2014. 86(23): p. 11860-11867.

Kienle, D.F., et al., Thickness and refractive index of DPPC and DPPE monolayers by multiple-beam interferometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2014. 406(19): p. 4725-4733.

Kurniawan, J., et al., Interaction Forces between Ternary Lipid Bilayers Containing Cholesterol. Langmuir, 2014. 30(17): p. 4997-5004.

Watkins, E.B., et al., Equilibrium or Quenched: Fundamental Differences between Lipid Monolayers, Supported Bilayers, and Membranes. Acs Nano, 2014. 8(4): p. 3181-3191.

Hardisty, M.R., et al., “Strain-induced optical changes in demineralized bone.” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2014. 19(3): p. 035001 (7 pp.)-035001 (7 pp.).


Orozco-Alcaraz, R. and T.L. Kuhl, Interaction Forces between DPPC Bilayers on Glass. Langmuir, 2013. 29(1): p. 337-343.

Liao, W.-P., et al., Normal and shear interactions between high grafting density polymer brushes grown by atom transfer radical polymerization. Soft Matter, 2013. 9(24): p. 5753-5761.

Elliott, I.G., T.L. Kuhl, and R. Faller, Compression of High Grafting Density Opposing Polymer Brushes Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations in Explicit Solvent. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2013. 117(15): p. 4134-4141.

Balko, S.M., et al., Using Thiol-Gold Bond Formation To Bridge Surfaces with a Polymer Brush: SFA Experiments and MD Simulations. Macromolecules, 2013. 46(24): p. 9826-9836.

Balko, S.M., et al., Polymer Brushes under High Load. Plos One, 2013. 8(3).

Watkins, E.B., et al., “Glycolipid clustering and lipid reorganization induced by bacterial toxin binding to model membranes.” European Biophysics Journal with Biophysics Letters, 2013. 42: p. S157-S157.


Orozco-Alcaraz, R. and T.L. Kuhl, Impact of Membrane Fluidity on Steric Stabilization by Lipopolymers. Langmuir, 2012. 28(19): p. 7470-7475.

Liao, W.-P. and T.L. Kuhl, Steric Forces of Tethered Polymer Chains as a Function of Grafting Density: Studies with a Single Diblock Molecular Weight. Macromolecules, 2012. 45(14): p. 5766-5772.

Elliott, I.G., T.L. Kuhl, and R. Faller, A Molecular Dynamics Technique to Extract Forces in Soft Matter Systems Under Compression With Constant Solvent Chemical Potential. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2012. 8(3): p. 1072-1077.

Castorph, S., et al., Structural Characterization of pH Responsive Polymer Cushions for Solid Supported Membranes. Biophysical Journal, 2012. 102(3): p. 647A-647A.


Watkins, E.B., et al., Structure and Thermodynamics of Lipid Bilayers on Polyethylene Glycol Cushions: Fact and Fiction of PEG Cushioned Membranes. Langmuir, 2011. 27(22): p. 13618-13628.

Elliott, I.G., R. Faller, and T.L. Kuhl, Examining confined polymer structures with constant chemical potential molecular dynamics simulations. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 2011. 242.

El-Khouri, R.J., et al., pH Responsive Polymer Cushions for Probing Membrane Environment Interactions. Nano Letters, 2011. 11(5): p. 2169-2172.

Watkins, E.B., et al., “Membrane texture induced by specific protein binding and receptor clustering: active roles for lipids in cellular function.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011. 108(17): p. 6975-6980.


Barber, S.M.B., et al., Measurement and application of the thiol-gold bond: Kinetic barriers and adhesive interactions between complementary surfaces. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 2010. 239.

Elliott, I.G., T.L. Kuhl, and R. Faller, Molecular Simulation Study of the Structure of High Density Polymer Brushes in Good Solvent. Macromolecules, 2010. 43(21): p. 9131-9138.

Mulder, D.J. and T.L. Kuhl, Polymer brushes in restricted geometries. Soft Matter, 2010. 6(21): p. 5401-5407.


Kuhl, T.L., et al., Probing membrane structure and domains using novel X-ray scattering methods. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 2009. 237.

Kuhl, T.L., Membrane adhesion: The role of spacers and ligand-receptor bond strength. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 2009. 237.

Ell, J.R., Mulder, D.E., Faller, R., Patten, T.E., Kuhl, T.L. “Structural Determination of High Density, ATRP Grown Polystyrene Brushes by Neutron Reflectivity” Macromolecules 42:9523-9527 (2009) (PDF).

Traskelin, P, Kuhl, T. L., and Faller, R. “Molecular dynamics simulations of polystyrene brushes in toluene solution” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11:11324-11332 (2009) (PDF).

Elliott, I.G., Mulder, D.E., Träskelin, P.T., Ell, J.R., Patten, T.E., Kuhl, T. L., Faller, R.” Simulations and Neutron Scattering in Confined Polymer Systems” DOI:10.1039/b910693f Soft Matter 5:4612-4622 (2009).

Watkins, E.B., Miller, C.E., Mulder, D.J., Kuhl, T.L., and Majewski, J. “Structure and orientational texture of self-organizing lipid bilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23) 4 pgs (2009).


Cho, J.-H. J., Smith, G. S., Hamilton, W. A., Mulder, D. J., Kuhl, T. L., and Mays, J. “Neuron surface force confinement cell for neutron reflectometry studies of complex fluid under nano-confinement,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 79:103908 7pgs (2008).

Miller, C. E., Majewski, J., Watkins, E. B., Weygand, M., and Kuhl, T. L. “Part II: Diffraction from 2D Cholera Toxin Crystals Bound to their Receptors in a Lipid Monolayer,” Biophysical Journal 95:641-647 (2008).

Miller, C. E., Majewski, J., Watkins, E. B., and Kuhl, T. L. “ Part I: An X-ray Scattering Study of Cholera Toxin Penetration and Induced Phase Transformations in Lipid Membranes,” Biophysical Journal 95:629-640 (2008).

Miller, C. E., Majewski, J., Watkins, E. B., Mulder, D. J., Gog, T., and Kuhl, T. L. “Probing the local order of single phospholipid membranes using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 058103 (2008).

Wong, J. Y., Kuhl, T. L., “Dynamics of Membrane Adhesion: The role of polyethylene glycol spacers, ligand-receptor bond strength, and rupture pathway,” Langmuir 24:1225-1231 (2008).

Moore, N. W., Mulder, D. J., and Kuhl, T. L., “Adhesion from Tethered Ligand-Receptor Bonds with Microsecond Lifetimes,” Langmuir 24:1212-1218 (2008).


Moore, N. W., Delacruz, A. D., Lancaster, K. S., Diekmann, T., and Kuhl, T. L., “Synthesis of a Reversible Streptavidin Binder for Biomimetic Assemblies,” Aus. J. Chem. 60 (5): 363-368 (2007).


Laub, C. F. and Kuhl, T.L. “Fitting a free-form scattering length density profile to reflectivity data using temperature-proportional quenching,” J. Chem. Phys. 125:244702 (8pgs) (2006).

Smith, G. S., Kuhl, T. L., Hamilton, W. A., Mulder, D. J., and Satija, S., “Structure of Confined Polymer Thin Films Subject to Shear,” Physica B 285-286(1):700-702 (2006).

Moore, N., Kuhl, T. L., “Bimodal Polymer Mushrooms: Compressive Forces and Specificity Towards Receptor Surfaces,” Langmuir 22:8485-8491 (2006).

Moore, N., Kuhl, T. L., “The Role Of Flexible Tethers In Multiple Ligand-Receptor Bond Formation between Curved Surfaces,” Biophysical Journal 91(5):1675-87 (2006).

Barber, S. M., Costanzo, P. J., Moore, N. W., Patten, T. E., and Kuhl, T. L., “Bilateral, Difunctional Nanosphere Aggregates and Their Assembly Mediated by Polymer Chains,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110:4538-4542 (2006).

Miller, C. E., Majewski, J., and Kuhl, T. L., “Characterization of single biological membranes at the solid–liquid interface by X-ray reflectivity,” Colloids and Surfaces A, 284-285: 434-439 (2006).


Miller, C. E., Majewski, J. Gog, T., and Kuhl, T. L., “Grazing Incidence Diffraction of Cadmium Arachidate Multilayers at the Solid-Liquid Interface,” Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie. 222:987-992 (2005).

Miller, C. E., Majewski,J. Gog, T., and Kuhl, T. L., “Characterization of Biological Thin-Films at the Solid-Liquid Interface by X-ray Reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94:238104 (2005).

Lin, Q., Meyer, E. E., Tadmor, M., Israelachvili, J. N., and Kuhl, T. L., “Measurement of the Long- and Short-Range Hydrophobic Attraction between Surfactant-Coated Surfaces,” Langmuir, 21:251-255 (2005).

Nichols-Smith, S., and Kuhl, T., “Electrostatic Interactions between Model Mitochondrial Membranes,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 41:121–127 (2005).

Miller, C. E., Kuhl, T. L., and Majewski, J., “Neutron and X-ray scattering studies of cholera toxin interactions with lipid monolayers at the air-liquid interface,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 40:159-163 (2005).


“Determining the density profile of confined polymer brushes with neutron reflectivity,” J. of Polymer Sci. 42(17):3290-3301 (2004) PDF Hamilton, W. A., Smith, G.S., Alcantar, N.A., Majewski, J., Toomey, R.G., Kuhl, T.L.

“Cholera toxin assault on lipid monolayers containing ganglioside GM(1),” Biophysical Journal 86(6):3700-3708 (2004). PDF Miller, C.E., Majewski, J., Faller, R., Satija, S., Kuhl, T.L.

“Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of model mitochondrial membranes,” BBA-Biomembranes 1663(1-2):82-88 (2004). PDF Nichols-Smith, S., Teh, S.Y., Kuhl, T.L.

Chen, N., Kuhl, T., Tadmor, R, Lin, Q., and Israelachvili, J. “Large deformations during the coalescence of fluid interfaces” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9202(2):4501-4506 (2004).


“Modeling the binding of cholera toxin to a lipid membrane by a non-additive two-dimensional hard-disk model,” Soft Materials 1(3):343-352 (2003). Faller, R., Kuhl, T.L.


“Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers: An X-ray diffraction and reflectivity study,” Biophysical Journal 81(5):2707-2715 (2001). PDF Majewski, J., Kuhl, T.L., Kjaer, K., Smith, G.S.

“Polymer Induced Membrane Contraction, Phase Separation and Fusion via Marangoni Flow,” Biophysical Journal 81(2):659-666 (2001). PDF Safran, S. A., Kuhl, T. L., Israelachvili, J. N.

“Impact of polymer tether length on multiple ligand-receptor bond formation,” Science 293(5529):465-468 (2001). PDF Jeppesen, C., Wong, J.Y., Kuhl, T.L., Israelachvili, J.N., Mullah, N., Zalipsky, S., Marques, C.M.

“A Synchrotron X-Ray Study of Lung Surfactant Specific Protein SP-B in Lipid Monolayers,” Biophysical Journal 81(1):572-585 (2001). PDF Lee, K. Y. C., Majewski, J., Kuhl, T. L., Howes, P. B., Kjaer, K., Lipp, M. M., Waring, A. J., Zasadzinski, J. A., and Smith, G. S.

“Neutron Confinement Cell for Investigating Complex Fluids,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72(3):1715-1720 (2001). PDF Kuhl, T. L., Smith, G. S., Israelachvili, J. N., Majewski, J., and Hamilton, W.


“X-ray and Neutron Surface Scattering for Studying Lipid/Polymer Assemblies at the Air-Liquid and Solid-Liquid Interfaces,” Reviews in Molecular Biotechnology 74(3):207-231 (2000). PDF Majewski, J., Kuhl, T. L., Wong, J. Y., and Smith, G. S.

“A Generic Substrate for the Surface Forces Apparatus: Deposition and Characterization of Silicon Nitride Surfaces,” Langmuir 16:6955-6960 (2000). PDF Golan, Y., Alcantar, N. A., Kuhl, T. L., and Israelachvili, J.

“Force probe measurements of antibody-antigen interactions,” Methods-A Companion to Methods in Enzymology, V20(N3):329-340 (2000). PDF Leckband, D. E., Kuhl, T. L., Wang, H. K., Muller, W., Herron, J., and Ringsdorf, H.


Yeung, C., Purves, T., Kloss, A. A., Kuhl, T. L., Sligar, S., and Leckband, D. “Cytochrome c Recognition of Immobilized, Orientational Variants of Cytochrome b5: Direct Force and Equilibrium Binding Measurements,” Langmuir 15:6829-6836 (1999).

Hui, S. W., Kuhl, T. L., Guo, Y. Q., and Israelachvili, J. N. “Use of Poly (ethylene glycol) to Control Cell Aggregation and Fusion,” Invited paper Colloids and Surfaces B 14:213-222 (1999).

Kuhl, T. L., Majewski, J., Howes, P. B., Kjaer, K., von Nahmen, A., Lee, K. Y. C., Ocko, B., Israelachvili, J. N., and Smith, G. S. “Packing Stress Relaxation in Polymer–Lipid Monolayers at the Air–Water Interface: An X-ray Grazing Incidence Diffraction and Reflectivity Study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121:7682-7688 (1999).

Kuhl, T. L., Majewski, J., Wong, J., Steinberg, S., Leckband, D. E., Israelachvili, J. N., and Smith, G. S. “A Neutron Reflectivity Study of a Polymer Decorated Bilayer: PEG–Lipid Monolayers Deposited on a Hydrophobic OTS Grafted Substrate,” Biophysical Journal. 75:2352-2362 (1998).

Kuhl, T.L., Berman, A. D., Israelachvili, J. N., and Hui, S. W. “Part I: Direct Measurement of Depletion Attraction Between Lipid Bilayers in Aqueous Polyethylene Oxide Solutions,” Macromolecules. 31:8250-8257 (1998).

Kuhl, T.L., Berman, A. D., Israelachvili, J. N., and Hui, S. W. “Part II: Cross-over from Depletion to Adsorption in Aqueous Polyethylene Oxide Solutions and Hairy Depletion Attraction,” Macromolecules. 31:8258-8263 (1998).

Majewski, J., Kuhl, T. L., Kjaer, K., Gerstenberg, M. C., Als-Nielsen, J., Israelachvili, J. N., and Smith, G. S. “An X-ray Synchrotron Study of Packing and Protrusions of Polymer Lipid Monolayers at the Air–Water Interface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120:1469-1473 (1998).

Giasson, S., Kuhl, T. L., and Israelachvili, J. N. “Interaction Forces between Surfaces Across Micellar and Microemulsions in Ultra-Thin Films,” Langmuir 14:891-898 (1998).

Majewski, J., Kuhl, T. L., Gerstenberg, M. C., Israelachvili, J. N., and Smith, G. S. “Structure of Phospholipid Monolayers Containing Poly(ethylene glycol) Lipids at the Air–Water Interface,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B 101:3122-3129 (1997).

Wong, J. Y., Kuhl, T. L., Israelachvili, J. N., Mullah, N., and Zalipsky, S. “Direct Measurement of a Tethered Ligand-Receptor Interaction Potential,”
Science 275:820-822 (1997).

Kuhl, T. L., Guo, U., Alderfer, J. L., Berman, A. D., Leckband, D. E., Israelachvili, J. N., and Hui, S. W. “Direct Measurement of Polyethylene glycol Induced Depletion Attraction between Lipid Bilayers,” Langmuir 12:3003-3014 (1996).

Leckband, D. E., Kuhl, T. L., Wang, H. K., Herron, J., Muller, W. and Ringsdorf, H. “4-4-20 Anti-fluorescyl IgG Fab’ Recognition of Membrane Bound Hapten: direct measurements of the role of protein and interfacial structure,” Biochemistry 34:11467-11478 (1995).

Kuhl, T. L., Ruths, M., Chen, Y. L., and Israelachvili, J. N. “Direct Visualization of Cavitation and Damage in Ultra Thin Liquid Films,” J. Heart Valve Disease 1(2):S117-S127 (1994).

Kuhl, T. L., Leckband, D. E., Lasic, D. D., and Israelachvili, J. N. “Modulation of Interaction Forces between Lipid Bilayers Exposing Short Chained Ethylene Oxide,”
Biophysical Journal  66:1479-1488 (1994).

Chen, Y. L., Kuhl, T. L., and Israelachvili, J. N. “Mechanism of Cavitation Damage in Thin Liquid Films: Collapse Damage versus Inception Damage,”
Wear 153:31-51 (1992).

Book Chapters

Moore, N., Kuhl, T. L., “Controlled Self-Assembly” in CRC Materials Processing Handbook, ed. J. Groza, et al. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2007).

Kuhl, T. L., Leckband, D. E., Lasic, D. D., and Israelachvili, J. N. “Bilayers Exposing Terminally Grafted Polymer Chains,” Chapter 8 of CRC Stealth Liposomes,
ed. Danillo D. Lasic and Frank Martin, 1995, pp. 79-97.


Ell, J., Patten, T., Mulder, D., and Kuhl, T., “Modification of Surfaces Using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization,” ACS Polymer Preprints in press.

Barber, S. M., Costanzo, P. J., Kuhl, T. L., Patten, T. E., “Polymer-Mediated Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles and the use of Magnetic particles to probe Ligand-Receptor Interactions,” ACS Polymer Preprints “Polymers in Biosensors and Biochips” 47(2);1102-1103 (2006).

Kuhl, T.L., Smith, G., Majewski, J., Hamilton, W., and Alcantar, N., “Investigating Confined Complex Fluids with Neutron Reflectivity,” Neutron News 14:29-31 (2003).

Kuhl, T. L., Smith, G. S., Majewski, J., Hamilton, W., and Alcantar, N. “Investigating Confined Complex Fluids with Neutron Reflectivity,” LANSCE Division Research Review LALP-02-099.

Lee, K.Y.C., Majewski, J., Kuhl, T.L., Howes, P.B., Kjaer, K., Lipp, M.M., Waring, A.J., Zasadzinski, J.A., Smith, G.S. (Edited by: Stock, S.R., Mini, S.M., Perry, D.L.) The incorporation of lung surfactant specific protein Sp-B into lipid monolayers at the air-fluid interface: a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction study. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Techniques to Materials Science V. Symposium (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol.590), Warrendale, PA, USA: Mater. Res. Soc, 2000. p.177-82. xiii+309 pp. 23.

Israelachvili, I., Giasson, S., Kuhl, T., Drummond, C., Berman, A., Luengo, G., Pan, J.-M., Heuberger, M., Ducker, W., and Alcantar, N., “Some fundamental differences in the adhesion and friction of rough versus smooth surfaces,”  In “Thinning films and tribological interfaces”, Proceedings of the 26th Leeds-Lyon Symposium, Tribology Series 38, Elsevier, pp. 3-12 (2000).

Israelachvili, J., Giasson, S., Kuhl, T., and Luengo, G., in Fundamentals of Wetting, Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effects on Oil Recovery, University of Wyoming (Publishers), Laramie, 1996, pp. 1–4.