Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Operations

Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Operations

Manufacturing has a large impact on worldwide energy use and resource consumption. The society and consumers become increasingly aware that environmental and social impacts of manufacturing need to be better controlled and reduced.

Sustainability strategies and indicators on the manufacturing process level are needed [1,2]. Abrasive machining processes are impacting the product performance heavily because they are usually performed at the end of process chains. Therefore, the sustainability of abrasive processes has to be discussed thoroughly [3,4]. Unit process life cycle inventories (UPLCI) provide a powerful means to describe environmental impacts [5]. We have also submitted UMP (Unit manufacturing process) representations according to ASTM E3012 − 16 to the RAMP competitions by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): 2018 A Production Line for Polylactide Business Card Holders by Ian Garretson, 2018 Technical and Environmental Aspects of Quality Assurance by Destiny Garcia, and 2017 Manual Grinding Operation by Jayanti Das.

Further studies at the MASTeR lab include sustainability of manual processes with power tools [6], high-frequency power measurement [7], sustainable process planning [8], environmental impacts and perceived quality of polymer 3D printing [9], sustainability of quality assurance [10], and sustainability in Ultra precision and Micro machining [11].

The environmental impact of Product-service Systems (PSS) such as wind turbines and machine tools can be assessed through the cumulative energy demand over their life time including manufacturing and use phase [12,13]. This research is performed with Prof. Jan Aurich, FBK, University of Kaiserslautern.


  1. Linke, B.; Dornfeld, D.: Application of Axiomatic Design Principles to Identify More Sustainable Strategies for Grinding, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 31, Issue 4, October 2012, p. 412–419, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2012.07.007
  2. Linke, B.; Corman, G.; Dornfeld, D.; Toenissen, S.: Sustainability indicators for discrete manufacturing processes applied to grinding technology. Journal of Manufacturing Systems 32 (2013), p. 556 – 563, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2013.05.005
  3. Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, M.; Carrella, M.; Kirsch, B.: Sustainability of abrasive processes, Annals of the CIRP 62/2/2013, p. 653-672, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2013.05.010
  4. Linke, B.; Overcash, M.: Life Cycle Analysis of Grinding, Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Berkeley, CA, USA, May 23 – 25, 2012, In: Dornfeld D., Linke B. (eds) Leveraging Technology for a Sustainable World. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p 293-298, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29069-5_50
  5. Linke, B., Overcash, M., Reusable Unit Process Life Cycle Inventory for Manufacturing: Grinding, Production Engineering – Research and Development, December 2017, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 643–653
  6. Odum, K.; Castillo, M.C.; Das, J.; Linke, B.: Sustainability analysis of grinding with power tools, Proceedings of the 6th CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting, HPC2014, Berkeley, CA, USA, June 23 – 25, 2014, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212827114001541
  7. Humphrey, S.; Papadopoulos, H.; Linke, B.; Maiyya, S.; Vijayaraghavan, A.; Schmitt, R.: Power measurement for sustainable high-performance manufacturing processes, Proceedings of the 6th CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting, HPC2014, Berkeley, CA, USA, June 23 – 25, 2014, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221282711400184X
  8. Linke, B.; Garcia, D.; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ghadamli, F.: Sustainable Process Planning For Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing Unit Processes, Proceedings of the ASME 2016 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC2016, Blacksburg, VI, USA, June 27- July 1, 2016, doi:10.1115/MSEC2016-8517
  9. Li, Y.; Linke, B.; Voet, H.; Falk, B.; Schmitt, R.; Lam, M.: Cost, sustainability and surface roughness quality – A comprehensive analysis of products made with personal 3D printers, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Volume 16, January 2017, Pages 1–11, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirpj.2016.10.001
  10. Garcia, D.R., Linke, B., Technical and Environmental Aspects of Quality Assurance, Poster at the RAMP workshop on June 21, 2018 at the NAMRC/MSEC 2018, College Station, TX, USA
  11. Schneider, F., Das, J., Kirsch, B., Linke, B., Aurich, J.: Sustainability in Ultra precision and Micro machining: A Review, accepted for publication on Dec 23, 2017, in International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology
  12. Mert, G.; Linke, B.; Aurich, J.,: Analysing the Cumulative Energy Demand of Product-service Systems for wind Turbines, Procedia CIRP Volume 59, 2017, Pages 214–219, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.09.018
  13. Moritz F. Glatt, Li Yi, Gülsüm Mert, Barbara S. Linke, Jan C. Aurich: Technical Product-Service Systems: Analysis and Reduction of the Cumulative Energy Demand, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 206, 1 January 2019, Pages 727-740, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.229

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